Capacity Cognitive Essay In Memory Psychology Working

Working memory is often used synonymously with short-term memory, but some theorists consider the two forms of memory distinct, assuming that working memory allows for the manipulation of stored information, whereas short-term memory only refers to the short-term storage of information.used the term to describe their "short-term store".Oberauer has extended Cowan's model by adding a third component, a more narrow focus of attention that holds only one chunk at a time.

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In this way, parts of long-term memory effectively function as working memory.

In a similar vein, Cowan does not regard working memory as a separate system from long-term memory.

This feat is possible by extensive training on an encoding strategy by which the digits in a list are grouped (usually in groups of three to five) and these groups are encoded as a single unit (a chunk).

For this to succeed, participants must be able to recognize the groups as some known string of digits.

The episodic buffer is also the link between working memory and long-term memory.

The component is episodic because it is assumed to bind information into a unitary episodic representation.

Most theorists today use the concept of working memory to replace or include the older concept of short-term memory, marking a stronger emphasis on the notion of manipulating information rather than mere maintenance.

The earliest mention of experiments on the neural basis of working memory can be traced back to more than 100 years ago, when Hitzig and Ferrier described ablation experiments of the prefrontal cortex (PFC); they concluded that the frontal cortex was important for cognitive rather than sensory processes.

introduced the multicomponent model of working memory.

The theory proposed a model containing three components: the central executive, the phonological loop, and the visuospatial sketchpad with the central executive functioning as a control center of sorts, directing info between the phonological and visuospatial components.

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    They also highlight the fact that cognitive ability can often be adversely affected by working memory capacity. It is particularly important to be clear on the normal capacity of short term memory as, without a proper understanding of the intact brain’s functioning it is difficult to assess whether an individual has a deficit in ability.…

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    The phonological loop is the part of working memory that deals with spoken and written material. It consists of two parts see Figure 3. The phonological store linked to speech perception acts as an inner ear and holds information in a speech-based form i.e. spoken words for 1-2 seconds.…

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