Cognitive Psychology Problem Solving

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Cognitive psychologists often have studied a particular type of well-structured problem: the class of move problems, so termed because such problems require a series of moves to reach a final goal state.

Perhaps the most well known of the move problems is one involving two antagonistic parties, whom we call “hobbits” and “orcs”.

Problems can be categorized according to whether they have clear paths to a solution.

Well-structured problems have clear paths to solutions.

The passive or defensive side tries to prevent the active or attacking side from doing so.

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This kind of problem-solving usually appears in situations of human conflict and competition.stresses the use of sets of known or prescribed procedures (algorithms) to solve problems.Initially the problems presented to students are simple one-step situations requiring a simple procedure to be performed.Adversary situations are common in games and sports, but they may also occur in many fields of practical life. Researchers have examined both adversary and non-adversary problem solving.Chess play is an example of adversarial prob­lem solving, because the game of chess involves an opponent.Other problem-solving heuristics such as describing the problem situation, making the problem simpler, finding irrelevant information, working backwards, and classifying information are also emphasized.Static nonroutine problems have a fixed known goal and fixed known elements which are used to resolve the problem.Problem-solving is a mental process that involves discovering, analyzing and solving problems.The ultimate goal of problem-solving is to overcome obstacles and find a solution that best resolves the issue.Thus, a problem for most people (e.g., a mathematical calcula­tion) may not be so for someone with relevant expertise (e.g., a professional mathematician).The most basic definition is “A problem is any given situation that differs from a desired goal”.

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