Darwin Second Principle Antithesis

Darwin Second Principle Antithesis-21
; and the genesis of his theory of evolution by natural selection. The first two voyages, furthering the chronometric and hydrographic survey of the globe, corrected measurements of longitude and charted the southern coasts of South America.

; and the genesis of his theory of evolution by natural selection. The first two voyages, furthering the chronometric and hydrographic survey of the globe, corrected measurements of longitude and charted the southern coasts of South America.

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Frederick Burkhardt has edited a handsome one-volume collection of has been by far the most important event in my life & has determined my whole career,” Darwin wrote in the autobiography he compiled for his family near the end of his life; “the shape of his head is quite altered,” he records his father as commenting on his return (“Recollections” 387-388). From a callow scion of midlands gentry, drifting half-heartedly towards a country parsonage, like a minor character in a Jane Austen novel (Darwin’s correspondence with his sisters casts him as the feckless Dick Musgrove, from , Darwin opened the first of a series of notebooks on the transmutation of species, which he would spend the next couple of decades refining into “the theory of descent with modification through natural selection” ( The voyage became the crucible of the theory well after it was over.

It trained Darwin’s powers of observation and reasoning, as he acknowledged (a ten-gun brig was his true Cambridge), and it afforded a vast fund of empirical data he would draw on in the development of his “one long argument” ( 338): peculiarities in the geographical distribution of plant and animal populations, fossil evidence of species extinction, geological traces of the mutability of continents.

Darwin also expanded and enhanced his general natural historical reflections, incorporating some of his developing research on the species question.

This version—reissued in 1860 with a brief postscript correcting some of the scientific data—established the text of (as the work was rechristened in 1905) as it has been reprinted and read ever since.

Throughout the remainder of 1834 and much of 1835 it surveyed the western coasts of South America and outlying islands, heading to the Galápagos archipelago in September 1835.

The following year, the traversed Australasia and the Indian and Atlantic Oceans, returning (via Bahia again) to England in October 1836.The reflection yields a patriotic high note: From seeing the present state, it is impossible not to look forward with high expectations to the future progress of nearly an entire hemisphere.The march of improvement, consequent on the introduction of Christianity throughout the South Sea, probably stands by itself in the records of history. The gradual influx of wealth, and extension of commerce, have since united to render the present people of Scotland a class of beings as different from their grandfathers as the existing English are from those of Queen Elizabeth’s time” (340).Remarkably, there has been no complete scholarly edition, either of the 1839 or of the 1845 versions, of so famous and consequential a work.Darwin based the published on the detailed diary and field notes he kept during the voyage.The 1845 edition differs significantly from the edition of 1839.Darwin condensed the text and rationalized its order, re-organizing the chapters to follow the geographical course of the circumnavigation rather than its chronology, so that multiple visits to a single location (e.g., Tierra del Fuego, December 1832-February 1833, February 1834, June 1834) are corralled into a single chapter or continuous narrative unit.It is the more striking when we remember that only sixty years since, Cook, whose excellent judgment none will dispute, could foresee no prospect of a change. Like the author of , Darwin looks back to a primitive age, an age of adventure, which has fallen definitively into the past.(607): “There is no European nation which, within the course of half a century, or little more, has undergone so complete a change as this kingdom of Scotland. “Sixty years since” marks a period, a horizon at which the past becomes visible as the past—and at which the present also acquires historical gravity, as the modern condition from which we are looking back.Darwin’s echo of Scott acknowledges his place in literary history as well as in the histories of science and exploration.In the remainder of this essay, I offer some considerations on the voyage of the as a literary event—an event in the history of representation.


Comments Darwin Second Principle Antithesis

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