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Currently, dengue is endemic to 128 countries, mostly developing nations, posing a risk to approximately 3.97 billion people annually. The life cycle of Aedes mosquito depending upon the extent of feeding lasts for 8–10 days at room temperature.A recent dengue distribution model has estimated 390 million dengue infections annually, out of which 96 million cases occurred apparently [6, 7]. niveus have been found to play a role as secondary vectors . It consists of two phases: aquatic (larvae, pupae) and terrestrial (eggs, adults) phase. albopictus has become an increasingly important vector as it can easily adapt to new environments, including temperate regions. Aegypti free countries has created opportunities for dengue viruses to enter new locations and cause disease .The impact of its limited application to the public health system needs to be evaluated.
Major functions of all the proteins are summarized in Table 1 [11, 12].
A three-dimensional image reconstruction of mature dengue virus shows that it is ~50 nm in diameter and consists of an outer protein shell (E and M), a lipid bilayer, and a less characterized nucleocapsid core (C and RNA genome).
The C protein is anchored on the cytoplasmic side of ER membrane.
pr M is later cleaved by furin (red arrow) in the TGN into the pr peptide and M protein.
The 5′UTR (~100 nucleotides) has a type I methylated cap structure (m7G5′ppp5′A) but the 3′UTR (~450 nucleotides) lacks a terminal polyadenylate tail.
Protein synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm on the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER), and the structural proteins get anchored to the ER on the luminal side, where assembly and maturation of virion occur (Figure 1) [2, 11].
Department of Biochemistry, University of Delhi, Institute of Home Economics, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, India Received 14 March 2016; Revised ; Accepted 1 June 2016Academic Editor: Mario Clerici Copyright © 2016 Niyati Khetarpal and Ira Khanna.
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The disease is mainly concentrated in tropical and subtropical regions, putting nearly a third of the human population, worldwide, at risk of infection .
Infection with DENV results in varying degrees of pathological conditions, ranging from mild asymptomatic dengue fever (DF) to severe dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) which may turn fatal .