Essay On Scientific Progress In After Independence

Essay On Scientific Progress In After Independence-58
Scientific theories, therefore, are accepted only provisionally.

Scientific theories, therefore, are accepted only provisionally.

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How these principles are applied varies considerably among the several scientific disciplines, different research organizations, and individual investigators.

The basic and particular principles that guide scientific research practices exist primarily in an unwritten code of ethics.

This knowledge is based on explanatory principles whose verifiable consequences can be tested by independent observers. Scientists operate within a system designed for continuous testing, where corrections and new findings are announced in refereed scientific publications.

Science encompasses a large body of evidence collected by repeated observations and experiments. The task of systematizing and extending the understanding of the universe is advanced by eliminating disproved ideas and by formulating new tests of others until one emerges as the most probable explanation for any given observed phenomenon. An idea that has not yet been sufficiently tested is called a hypothesis.

But as theories survive more tests, they are regarded with higher levels of confidence.

In science, then, facts are determined by observation or measurement of natural or experimental phenomena.

Although some have proposed that these principles should be written down and formalized, the principles and traditions of science are, for the most part, conveyed to successive generations of scientists through example, discussion, and informal education.

As was pointed out in an early Academy report on responsible conduct of research in the health sciences, “a variety of informal and formal practices and procedures currently exist in the academic research environment to assure and maintain the high quality of research conduct” (IOM, 1989a, p. Physicist Richard Feynman invoked the informal approach to communicating the basic principles of science in his 1974 commencement address at the California Institute of Technology (Feynman, 1985): [There is an] idea that we all hope you have learned in studying science in school—we never explicitly say what this is, but just hope that you catch on by all the examples of scientific investigation.

In evaluating practices that guide research endeavors, it is important to consider the individual character of scientific fields.

Research fields that yield highly replicable results, such as ordinary organic chemical structures, are quite different from fields such as cellular immunology, which are in a much earlier stage of development and accumulate much erroneous or uninterpretable material before the pieces fit together coherently.

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