How To Do Citations In A Research Paper

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In any research paper, you draw on the work of other researchers and writers, and you must document their contributions by citing your sources, say Diana Hacker and Nancy Sommers in "A Pocket Style Manual, Eighth Edition." Citations, then, are the means by which you credit other researchers and writers when you use their work in your papers.

Understanding how to cite sources can be tricky, particularly since there are different styles for writing papers, including the American Psychological Association, Modern Language Association, and Chicago (Turabian) styles.

When you cite a source, you can't simply repeat most of the words from the work to which you are referring.

You have to put the ideas into your own words, or you need to quote the text directly.

Chicago is the oldest of the three major writing and citation styles in the United States, having begun with the 1906 publication of the first Chicago style guide.

For in-text citations, Chicago style, which comes from the "Chicago Manual of Style" from the University of Chicago Press, is pretty simple: the author's last name, date of publication, a comma, and page numbers, all in parentheses, as follows: At the end of the paper, insert a list of references, which in Chicago style is called a bibliography.MLA style is often used in English and other humanities papers.MLA follows the author-page style for in-text citations, notes Purdue OWL, an excellent citation, grammar, and writing website operated by Purdue University."A Pocket Style Manual" gives this example: Though the citations here won't print this way, use a hanging indent for the second and any subsequent lines in each citation.In a hanging indent in APA style, you indent every line after the first.American Psychological Association (APA) style is often used in social sciences and other disciplines.With APA or any of the styles listed in this paper, you need to use a citation if you quote text from another source, paraphrase an author or authors' ideas, or refer to her work, such as a study, original thinking, or even an elegant turn of phrase.For Chicago style, use the same method as described previously but add the URL, as in this example: MLA style used to require you to list the date you accessed the information, but that's no longer the case.To cite an electronic source, use the same style as discussed previously, but replace the period after the date with a comma and then list the URL.There are actually many variations for references citations depending, for example, on whether you are citing a book, journal article, or newspaper story, or the many different kinds of media, including audio recordings and film. For such a citation, list the last name of the author, followed by a comma, followed by the first initial(s) of the author(s), followed by a period.You would put the year the book was published in parentheses followed by a period, then the title of the book in italics using sentence case, followed by a comma, the place of publication, followed by a colon, and then the publisher, followed by a period.

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