Persian War Essay

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It does not examine the course of the battles themselves; nor does it seek to hypothesise over how the war would have progressed differently had the outcomes of the battle differed from reality.

The investigation assesses two sources for origins, purpose, value and limitations.

The sources assessed are Tom Holland's 'Persian Fire: The First World Empire and the Battle for the West' and Herodotus' 'Histories', which, although not often referred to itself, is the source of almost all knowledge of the period and all the other sources draw on it heavily. Summary of Evidence: The Battle of Marathon occurred in 490 BC as the result of the first major expedition (an amphibious operation1) by the Persians into central Greece.

At this point Greece was fragmented, ruled by innumerable city-states. Evaluation of Sources: The book 'Persian Fire: The First World Empire and the Battle for the West' was first published in 2005 and was written by Tom Holland who is a British historian.

We say that if they did not Medize, it was because the Athenians did not do so either; just as afterwards when the Athenians attacked the Hellenes they, the Plataeans, were again the only Boeotians who Atticized." ~Thucydides The final battle of the war had led to the death of the Athenian leader Cimon and the defeat of the Persian forces in the area, but it didn't give decisive power in the Aegean to one side or the other.

The Persians and Athenians were both tired and after Persian overtures, Pericles sent Callias to the Persian capital of Susa for negotiations.Greek historian Peter Green characterizes it as a David and Goliath struggle with David holding out for political and intellectual liberty against the monolithic theocratic Persian war machine. Earlier than the (mostly failed) attempts by the Persian kings Darius and Xerxes to control Greece, Persian King Cambyses had extended the Persian Empire around the Mediterranean coast by absorbing Greek colonies. The Persian Wars ended with the Peace of Callias of 449, but by this time, and as a result of actions taken in Persian War battles, Athens had developed her own empire.It wasn't just Greeks against Persians, nor were all the Greeks on the Greek side. Some Greek poleis (Thessaly, Boeotia, Thebes, and Macedonia) joined Persia, as did other non-Greeks, including Phoenicia and Egypt, but many Greek poleis, under the leadership of Sparta, especially on land, and under the dominance of Athens, at sea, opposed the Persian forces. However, conflict started between the Greek poleis in Ionia and the Persian Empire before 499 B. There were two mainland invasions of Greece, in 490 (under King Darius) and 480-479 B. Conflict mounted between the Athenians and the allies of Sparta.According to Diodorus, the terms gave the Greek poleis in Ionia their autonomy and the Athenians agreed not to campaign against the Persian king. The Greco-Persian Wars The Greco-Persians Wars were two wars fought between the Persian Empire and some of the independent Greek city-states.Marathon, occurring 10 years previously to the other battles examined, was a great victory and gave the Hellenic League - the Greek coalition - the hope that they could successfully resist.However, it did lead to problems in Athens, as it created over-confidence to the extent of arrogance in the Athenians.It is clearly well researched, yet the subject is so controversial among historians of the period that he would be unable to fulfil his purpose whilst explaining his views in every single controversial area so at times he makes assumptions which could at times be a limitation.A more obvious limitation of the source is that it was written nearly two and a half thousand years after the period discussed, so there is little evidence as to the events of the war - much that is presented as fact is more of an informed estimate. Conclusion directly, leading to their tactics of securing the support of Greek traitors and using flanking attacks - tactics which nearly conquered the Greeks. Conclusion: The Greco-Persian wars are a period of much controversy, with many statistics and events being fiercely debated.Panhellenism (united Greeks) became important during the Persian Wars."Next, when the barbarian invaded Hellas, they say that they were the only Boeotians who did not Medize; and this is where they most glorify themselves and abuse us.

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