*In a brittle material, such as glass or ceramics, the stress-strain graph will have an extremely short elastic region, and then will fracture.*

*In a brittle material, such as glass or ceramics, the stress-strain graph will have an extremely short elastic region, and then will fracture.*

Where σ is stress (in Newtons per square metre or, equivalently, Pascals), F is force (in Newtons, commonly abbreviated N), and A is the cross sectional area of the sample. Two distinctions should be made between stress and pressure: Firstly, while pressure is typically used to describe fluids (liquids or gases), stress is used to describe solids.

Secondly, while pressure can only act perpendicular to a surface, stress is also able to act parallel to a surface.

What exactly is a linear elastic behavior of a material?

If we apply stress to a material, strain increases proportionally.

The material will now 'give' and extend more under less force.

At point 3, the material has been fractured and so no further measurements can be taken.The stress equation is E is the modulus of elasticity, or the Young's modulus.It is a material constant, different for each substance.After point 1, the amount of stress decreases due to necking at one point in the specimen.If the stress were recorded where the necking occurs we would observe an upward curve and an increase in stress due to this reduction in area(stress = Force / area, thus stress increases during necking).For example, if you take an elastic band and stretch it so that it is twice longer than initially, then the strain will be equal to 1 (100%). L₁ denotes the initial length, L₂ - the final length, and ΔL is the change in length. Stress, on the other hand, is the measure of pressure that the particles of a material exert on each other.It is defined as force acting on the object per area.This may be true for some range of stress only - after we reach a certain value, the material may break or yield.Yielding is the increase of strain in a constant stress state.how much it will stretch) as a result of a given amount of stress.The Young's Modulus E of a material is calculated as: The values for stress and strain must be taken at as low a stress level as possible, provided a difference in the length of the sample can be measured.

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