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The producing countries of the Middle East have widely studied morphological characteristics of walnut.The USA and France, for example, are behind important cultivar releases such as “Chandler” and “Franquette.” Finally, genomics represents a major breakthrough in walnut improvement, in particular by recent sequencing of both chloroplast and nuclear genomes.In relation to that, a very recent study focused on the history of its spread across Europe has integrated various data such as fossil pollen and microsatellite markers (Pollegioni et al.
The Persian walnut tree ( About 16 species from the Americas, leaves with dentate leaflets (9/25), nut with thick shell and presence of lacunae with well-developed and lignified primary and secondary walls, not dehiscent hairless husk or slightly pubescent , 25 to 40-m high tree, 13/23 leaflets lanceolate/narrow/elongated/finely dentate at their sides, nuts regularly larger than longer and slightly flattened, presence of black lacunae in the nut shell and difficult to break, pronounced taste appreciated in Northern America for ice creams and cakes, more resistant to extreme cold than Native to Northern California, few in France, 20 to 30-m high tree, 15/21 leaflets lanceolate/narrow/finely dentate, green-blue, almost smooth nut, early budding, late flowering, appreciated for its wood, widely used in California as rootstock (“Paradox” rootstock is a hybrid from Native to Texas and Northern Mexico, semi-bushy, 10 m high at most, globulous nuts with thick shell and presence of lacunae, very furrowed, distinguished from other black walnuts by its small size (1.5 cm diameter), 15/23 leaflets dentate/small/narrow/lanceolate, lower side oftenly fluffy, can interbreed with Found in Costa Rica, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, and Nicaragua; can reach 40 m high; darker leaves on upper side; husk used to color leather; brown wood easy to work used for fine furniture and lute-making; edible nuts Native to Northeastern USA, near to Canada, spontaneous until Minnesota and Arkansas, spreading shrub up to 20 m high, light gray bark and very cracked when mature, susceptible to sunburn, wood of lower grade than common and black walnut, very cropper, early budding, poor compatibility with Native to Central and Eastern China, spreading shrub up to 25 m high, used as rootstock in China, 9/17 acuminate leaflets, pubescent on lower side with glandulous petiole, nuts in cluster of 6/10, sherical to ovoid shape, thick smooth shell Native to Manchuria and Korea, found in Amur river valley, resistant to extreme cold, used as rootstock in cold areas of Northern China, spreading shrub, light gray bark, 30 m high, used for its wood, leaves until 90 cm, 9/17 oblong and acuminate leaflets, few dentate, pubescent on lower side, distinguished from from North America was made possible by the Bering land bridge during Middle Tertiary (from ~ 66 to ~ 3 mya) and the North Atlantic land bridge during late Eocene (~ 38 to ~ 33 mya).
In addition, there was an adaptation to Neogene cool climate (~ 23 to ~ 3 mya) (Wolfe ) and other expansions towards Southeastern Europe and Central and South America during late Myocene (~ 12 to ~ 5 mya).
Another recent study confirmed this hypothesis and in addition showed that the highest genetic diversity of Persian walnut is found in South Asia, suggesting that this region is probably the origin of Persian walnut (Roor et al. Alternatively, Cro-Magnon people could have eaten ancestral forms of Persian walnuts (~ 17.000 ya) as archeological evidence found in the Perigord French region suggests. Evidence suggests human-mediated dispersal during the Roman Empire between Western Europe and the Balkans in Eastern Europe (Pollegioni et al. In the sixteenth century, the conquest of the New World enabled the spread of Persian walnut into South America, particularly Chile, before introduction in its present form to California in the nineteenth century (Germain et al.
During the time of Ancient Greece, Persian walnuts became dispersed and more abundant thanks to Alexander the Great (~ 350 B. ), walnut trees are wind-pollinated monoecious and dichogamous plants.
Female inflorescences of most walnut species, including Persian walnut, develop as individual flowers or most commonly as two or three per inflorescence.
Female flowers of species in section are borne in racemes of approximately 7–19 flowers each.
From studying chloroplast DNA (cp DNA) intergenic spacer sequences, it seems that the division within genus ), particularly the foothills of the Western Himalayas from the Kashmir region to Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.
It first spread to the west, namely Uzbekistan, north Iran, Caucasus region, and eastern region of Turkey (Dode ), it is still debated how trees have reached Europe.
For this purpose, the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) offers guidelines in determining distinctness, homogeneity, and stability of new cultivars for most plants.
Thus, morphological studies provide direction for the choice of cultivars suited to specific growing conditions (Solar and Stampar ) found a strong correlation between lateral-bearing habit and yield in Iranian genotypes.